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Although modern criticism refutes the Renaissance interpretation of the dictum as poetry and painting harmonized as sister arts Weisstein , this view of the reciprocity of the word and the image held sway for centuries. This is nowhere more evident than in the great proliferation of emblem books in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The enduring popularity of the emblem genre is somewhat of a mystery.
It is perhaps due in part to the unique process of reading and interpreting the emblem. Separately, both word and image are capable of evoking multiple layers of meaning in a given poem or painting. With the passage of time, new significations accrue and revitalize the work of art.
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The emblem functions quite differently. When taken alone, its three basic components of inscriptio, pictura and subscriptio are also endowed with complex potentialities. The proof of this assertion lies in the common practice of borrowing emblem plates from a predecessor to create a new and different emblem. However, when viewed as part of the emblematic whole, each of the three components circumscribes and limits the potential meanings of the others. Instead of compounding interpretations, as in a painting or a poem, we must discard seemingly viable possibilities until we hit upon the single axis where motto, plate and explanatory poem all coincide.
At the precise moment when the predetermined meaning is fully comprehended, the reader experiences an illuminating satisfaction. It is the joy of the hunt, or the pleasure of working through the enigma, which yields aesthetic pleasure. It is clear that emblems demanded the active participation of their readers. They are, according to Rosalie L. The verse subscriptio , contrary to normal practice, is evenly split, with three verses above the plate and three below, because it represents a dialogue.
The meaning of the enigma is chained to the poem and its commentary just as the meaning of this and all emblems is totally bound to the interrelationship between its constituent parts.
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The ludic nature of the emblem was obviously a great appeal to Cervantes and his contemporaries. In an age which witnessed the systematic cultivation of human wit, the emblem offered a great vehicle on which to exercise it.
For the creative writer, the evocation of a previously constituted emblem permitted the depiction, with great verbal economy and without sacrificing the enigmatic, of an abstract and often moral concept. Over the years, a number of critical studies have attempted, with varying degrees of success, to establish a relationship between Don Quixote and the popular vogue of emblem books 2. The textual evidence suggests that Cervantes was indeed familiar with emblematics, and that he imbued his works on occasion with emblematic qualities.
At times, he appears to have borrowed images directly from the emblem books, though given the Classical origins of most emblem motifs, it is plausible that he coincided fortuitously with the emblematists. A common motif in the Spanish emblem books portrays death as the great equalizer, a theme admittedly unoriginal in these collections 3. This study will analyze the initial framing of the episode of the carreta de las Cortes de la muerte II. I will also describe several of the Spanish emblems that deal with the commonplace of death as the great equalizer. Of the three essential parts of the emblem already enumerated, the plate or pictura is primary.
The pictorial element is usually relatively simple and uncluttered, in which two or more elements rarely found in combination in nature are juxtaposed. The odd yoking of these elements, according to some versions of emblem theory, is then briefly, though perhaps enigmatically, summarized in a pithy inscriptio , the motto, or lemma. Ideally, the motto is in Latin or some other language not native to the emblematist. However, practice does not always follow theory, and these precepts are violated with some regularity.
For the purpose of identifying emblematic aspects of a work of fiction, unless the author is merely borrowing from extant emblems, the depiction of a verbal pictura is the most indispensable element. The writer who attempts to fashion emblematic prose or verse must create a visually striking image; ideally one that fuses disparate objects or motifs not readily found in natural conjunction. When properly read or interpreted, the parts of the verbal or pictorial emblem should combine into a whole that reveals some deeper meaning. These are the basic tenets that correspond to emblem theory, though we must reiterate that in practice emblems do not always conform neatly to the premises outlined above 5.
With this theoretical construct in mind, we will examine the presentation of the carreta de la muerte in terms of its parecer and not its ser , that is, its initial framing as a frightening emblem of mortality, and not its reality as a company of actors on its way to present the auto of Las Cortes de la Muerte in a nearby village. Nor does it seem particularly convincing to see the carreta de la muerte , as does David Gitlitz, as a cathartic episode that sets in motion a process of mysticism.
The context in which the carro makes its appearance enhances the aura of undeceiving. Don Quixote is sad and pensive because of the alleged enchantment of Dulcinea. It can be viewed as a kind of spiritual cleansing appropriate to Corpus, a washing away of the veils of illusion that will allow Don Quixote to finally see reality and appreciate metaphor through his customarily unreliable eyes. It is significant that the point of view at this moment in the novel is intentionally ambiguous. In addition, although the initial glimpse of the cart logically includes verbs of motion, the reader is not aware of movement.
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As in a painting, or emblem, the occupants of the cart seem frozen in static poses at first, with the imperfect verbs that introduce them functioning as a merely descriptive past tense. Cervantes, or Cide Hamete, thus presents lo the reader a kind of ekphrastic narration of a word emblem:. The only other figure described is the armed knight, divested of his helmet.
If this is indeed an emblematic representation, what does this strange visual image, a kind of terrestrial ship of fools, mean? Cervantes is not explicit, though the text yields clues to assist the reader in deciphering the puzzle. What disturbs our protagonist is the moral that he derives from the todo : the glimpse of his own mortality. The inclusion of the emperor in this morbid spectacle would also be immediately recognized by a Baroque audience as a symbol of death as the great equalizer. Another figure in the carreta , Cupid, trampled underfoot by Death, shows the folly of human eros, regardless of the fact that our knight strives so persistently to restrain his urges and channel them into an absurd platonic love.
Finally, the helmetless knight vanquished by unsparing Death is Don Quixote.
The lack of head armor can be seen as an indication that the knight is undergoing a symbolic divestiture of arms, a denuding of the trappings of earthly folly. At the same time, it can function as an indication that those who gird the sword are not necessarily knights; that some important knightly attribute is absent. The sum of the parts of this novelistic emblem leads to a coherent moral: the prospect of his mortality makes Don Quixote view himself, even if momentarily, as he truly is: an hidalgo , deceived by the fleeting lure of eros and fame.
Alonso Quijano el Bueno has only been playing at being a knight errant and he is therefore vulnerable to being caught unprepared by unyielding Death.
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Perhaps subconsciously, Don Quixote comes to grips with the fact that all are equal in death, and this realization in turn will temper his actions somewhat in the remainder of the novel. The carreta de la muerte is, at least initially, a non-adventure.
More often than not in the reprise of the adventures of Don Quixote, the protagonist does not succumb to initial appearances and attack impetuously. The lesson that Don Quixote needs to assimilate before his exemplary death is, in fact, how to hold the reins on his own self-indulgent excesses. However, it is not this harangue that prevents Don Quixote from pursuing his revenge. He knows very well that temerity is preferable to cowardice in the pursuit of valor II. Is this another authorial descuido? Don Quixote is not yet totally undeceived about the reality of the cart.
He does not view its riders as mere actors. It is also unlikely that Cervantes forgot the caballero armado escorting Death in the wagon. Don Quixote has read the emblem and he has assimilated its moral. Other reminders of mortality include the discussion between knight and squire as to whether more glory accrues to him who resuscitates the dead, or him who slays giants II.
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In addition to the many reminders of death, there are other novelistic emblems of death as the great equalizer interspersed throughout the second part of the novel. In discussing the incident in the following chapter, Don Quixote evokes the picture of the word as a theater in which the actors represent different social classes, but are reduced to a common denominator at the end of the play when stripped of their disguises. Don Quixote introduces a moral dimension to his verbal pictura that makes it translatable into a moral emblem:.
Other possible novelistic emblems that portray all mankind as peers in the tomb appear with sufficient frequency lo indicate that they are not mere coincidence.https://exicokypoog.tk